Special Six: Highlights of Luxor

One of the last cities we explored, during the 9 day Nile Adventure – Felucca cruise tour of Timeless Tours, was Luxor. Luxor, the ancient city of Thebes, was one of the most prominent cities of ancient Egypt. Now the footprints of the modern city intertwines with the ruins of this ancient city.

The following were the special six highlights from my visit to Luxor:

(1) Luxor Temple:

Located on the east bank of Nile River, Luxor temple complex was built in 1400 BC and believed to have been dedicated to Amun.

Obelisks were a key feature of ancient Egyptian temples. One of the pair that stood at Luxor temple was relocated to Paris and is currently at Place de la Concorde.

The Luxor temple and Karnak temple was connected across a 3 Km avenue of Sphinxes.

The sacred lake within the temple was built around mid 1500 BC by Tuthmoses III. There was a scarab facing the lake, around which my group members walked around seven times as there was a local belief that doing so would eliminate any love problems that one had or would face in the future.


(2) Karnak Temple:

Karnak was the main place of worship during its time. It was dedicated to the chief deity of the Theban Triad, Amun.


There was an annual procession from Karnak temple to Luxor temple along the avenue of Sphinxes.

(3) Colossi of Memnon

The two stone statues of Pharoah Amenhotep III have stood guarding the mortuary temple of Amenhotep on the west bank of Nile River since 1350 BC. The temple was considered the largest in its time, even larger than Karnak temple. However, an earthquake around 1200 BC destroyed the temple and left only the statues standing.

Why Amenhotep’s statues later came to be called Colossi of Memnon is connected to the Trojan war. Memnon, the King of Ethiopia, and believed to be the son of the Goddess of dawn. Following his slaying by Achilles in the Trojan war, a cry was heard at dawn across the statues which apparently sounded like Memnon. Hence, the name Colossi of Memnon was bestowed to these two statues. Our guide mentioned that the sound may have been due to the wind passing through the cracks in the statues.

(4) Habu Temple:

The Mortuary temple of Ramesses III is located in the west bank of Luxor.

Our guide had given us the option of visiting Temple of Edfu, on our drive from Aswan the previous afternoon, or visiting Habu temple in the morning. He mentioned that while Habu was a smaller temple, the relief on its walls were well preserved and worth visiting. Our group unanimously voted to visit the Habu temple and we were not disappointed.

(5) Temple of Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut was a female Pharoah, who came to power in 1478 BC and ruled for nearly 22 years.

She had herself depicted as a male with a beard in her statues at the entrance of her mortuary temple.

(6) Valley of Kings:

The Valley of Kings, on the west bank of Luxor, was the Theban necropolis where Pharoahs were buried between 16th and 11th century BC.

Our entrance ticket to the Valley of Kings allowed us to visit 3 of the tombs within the valley. There were some tombs, especially Tutankhamen’s , that had an additional entrance ticket.

What amazed me was the preoccupation of ancient Egyptians with death. Apparently, a Pharoah as soon as he came to power would start building his tomb. As indicated at the entrance of the tomb of Rameses III, the tomb was built at different levels deep inside the ground to accommodate not only the Pharoah but his family members and other people close to the Pharoah.


As was the case of Ramesses III’s tomb, he worked at extending the partly excavated tomb initiated by his father.

The paintings on the walls of the tomb of Ramesses IX were well preserved. Different Gods, including Anubis, the God of death were painted on the walls.

The overall impression I left Egypt with was that ancient Egyptian rulers were obsessed with their mortality and after-life. They were concerned about their reputation after their passing and wanted to document and record their lives from their perspective. This obsession has left us with materials thousand years down the line, for us to be better able to understand how royal life was back then.

Have you been to Egypt? What was your impression of the ancient Egypt sites that you visited? If you haven’t, which site would you want to visit the most and why?

Special Six: Highlights of Coptic Cairo

I opted out of visiting Saqara on the group tour, as I had already visited it on my first free day on my own. Instead I decided to take an Uber ride to Coptic Cairo. These are the six places I visited within the cordoned off area.

(1) Cavern Church

The Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus or the Abu Serga is dedicated to the soldier saints martyred in the 4th century. The church is believed to have been built over the crypt where Mary, Joseph and Infant Jesus are said to have rested during the flight into Egypt when fleeing from Herod.

 (2) Hanging Church or the Saint Virgin Mary’s Coptic Orthodox Church

Built around the 7th century, the Church’s location above the gatehouse of Babylon fortress gave the church it’s name.


(3) St George Orthodox Church

Located within the Babylon Fortress of Coptic Cairo, this church was rebuilt in early 20th century after a fire destroyed the original structure from the 10th century.


(4) St Barbara’s Church

Dating back to the 5th or 6th century, St Barbara’s Church is one of the oldest buildings in Coptic Cairo. It is close to Ben Ezra Synagogue.


(5) Ben Ezra Synagogue

The current structure dates to the late 19th century but its predecessors are said to have dated back to the 9th century. Local folklore also considers this the site where Baby Moses was found among the reeds.


Photo Credit: Cairo 360

(6) Coptic Museum

Built in the early 20th century, the Museum has a large collection of artefacts from Coptic antiquities.

Coptic Cairo is definitely an area that needs to be visited, after one has visited Giza governorate and the Pyramid complexes of Giza, Saqqara and Dahshur.




Special Six: Highlights of Aswan

I had booked the 9 day Nile Adventure Felucca Cruise with Timeless Tours, through Tour Radar and chosen the option of flying into Aswan from Cairo, instead of taking the overnight bus. It was a good option as it allowed me to rest better before the travel around Aswan started.

These are the special six highlights of my travel around Aswan.

(1) Aswan High Dam:

Construction on the High Dam started in 1960 and was completed in 1970, with the reservoir filling to capacity in 1976. With the dam being better able to control flooding, protection from floods, drought and has contributed to an increase in agricultural production and employment as well as electricity production, it has also caused the relocation of thousands of people and flooded ancient sites. Abu Simbel Temple is one such site that was relocated to another site due to the dam.

The Lotus Tower or the Friendship Tower was built in 1971 to mark the contribution of Soviet Union in the building of the dam.

(2) Temple of Philae

The Temple of Philae built in the 4th century BC, was relocated from its original location to the island of Agilkia due to the flooding during the Low Dam construction. Ancient Egyptians believed that this was one of the places where one of Osiris’ parts was buried.

After walking around the temple, I made my way back to the café by the jetty to have some mint tea. Some kittens had taken over the couches and were enjoying their siesta, as I sipped my tea.

(3) Nubian Museum:

Inaugurated in 1997, the museum in Aswan is dedicated to the Nubian culture and civilization. Since we had a couple of hours free in the afternoon and the museum was just opposite our hotel, some of our group members decided to visit the museum. It had a few artefacts and information.


(4) Abu Simbel Temple

The visit to Abu Simbel Temple was one of the special highlights of my travel to Egypt.


The statues at the entrance of the temple for Ramesses II reminded me of Shelley’s poem Ozymandias. Shelley had been inspired to write Ozymandias from the accounts of the statue of Ramesses found in the desert among the sands, head separated from torso and legs.

” ‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.”

The carvings inside the temple was clear and told the story that Ramesses II wanted successive generations to associate with him.

Next to the temple for Ramesses II, there was the smaller temple built for his Chief Queen, Nefertari. It is supposedly one of the rare instances when the Queen’s statue has been made the same size as that of the Pharaoh.

IMG_4881 There is a beautiful carving of Goddess Hathor within Nefertari’s temple and a painting that shows her being blessed and accepted as an equal by the Goddesses Hathor and Isis.


Both temples had been beautifully carved and were full of stories. Due to the building of the Aswan Low Dam, the temples had to be relocated to its current location.


(5) Felucca Overnight Cruise

There had been an option of an overnight felucca cruise or being on a 3 day cruise ship, with Timeless Tours. I chose the overnight felucca cruise option.

Cruising along the Nile in a traditional boat was a beautiful experience. Our group was divided into two groups of ten and given two feluccas. Our felucca basically had a common, open sleeping space with mattresses, which also converted into the dining area during meal times.

The food was quite good and we had flatbread with baba ghanouj and okra curry for lunch, a chorba for dinner and some rice and fried chicken. For breakfast, we were served baladi with ful and boiled eggs, and some cheese and fruit. Overall, within the narrow confines of the boat’s cooking space, the crew turned out hot, tasty meals.

The felucca also had a top deck, where it was lovely to sit and experience the quiet and calm start to a morning on the Nile.

(6) Kom Ombo Temple:

After we disembarked from our felucca, we boarded our bus for the drive to Luxor. We stopped at the Kom Ombo temple for a visit.

Kom Ombo had been dedicated to both brothers, Sobek and Horus, and represents both the dark and light forces that human nature appeals to.

The temple had carvings on its wall depicting the seasonal calendar and the offerings that needed to be given at each stage to ensure a prosperous cultivation. The well within the temple was connected to a Nilometer, which was basically the system that ancient Egyptians used to tax people based on the water level of the Nile River and the corresponding proximity of residence of the people.

Overall, Aswan was a lovely city that I enjoyed, especially for its history.

Special Six: Tastes of Egypt

During my 9 days in Egypt, I tried some of the local cuisine. Here’s six of my favourites.

(1) Baladi with Torshi


At Sobhy Kaber Grills, they served the flatbread with pickled vegetables (aubergine, carrots, onions), a spicy salad (cucumber and tomato with coriander), hummus and a cheesy dip as a starter. It was very delicious that I would have been happy had it been the complete meal.

(2) Molokhiya

IMG_4801The green leafy vegetable soup with coriander and garlic was an interesting interlude before the main meal was served at the Sobhy Kaber Grills. The Egyptian rice served with okra in a tomato based sauce and roast chicken was a lovely finish to the lovely dinner I had on my first day in Cairo, at the recommendation of Nour Gaber, my taxi driver for the day.

(3) Koshari

While I had wanted to try Koshari at the famous Abou Tarek Koshari shop in downtown Cairo, I finally got to try it at a café in Khan El Khalili bazaar.

IMG_2687Considered the unofficial national dish of Egypt, Koshari is a tasty mix of carbs – rice, pasta, fried lentils, onion flakes and tomato sauce.

(4) Falafel Sandwiches:

I was not much of a fan of falafel before, mainly because the ones that I had tried earlier had been made of chickpeas. However, from the first time I tried falafel in Cairo, I enjoyed it very much. The Egyptian falafels are made of fava beans.

Also, on our tour, our guide organized falafel sandwiches for lunch whenever we were traveling through the day with limited time to stop for lunch at a restaurant. Therefore, I associate falafel sandwiches as the flavor of this trip.

I haven’t taken any photo of the falafel sandwiches because all the times I had them had been when I was too hungry to bother about taking a photo first.

(5) Ful Medames

I tried Ful on the felucca cruise, when they served it for breakfast. Again, I forgot to take a photo but the cooked fava beans was great with the flatbread and boiled egg.

(6) Konafa

On my last morning in Cairo, I had asked Nour to take me to El Abd bakery so that I could get some traditional sweets to take back home. It was there that I first tried out the Egyptian Konafa which has a creamy layer in the middle. Previous Konafa I had tried in Jordan was more crispy without any creamy filling. At home, my mother also seemed to enjoy the Egyptian Konafa very much.


Photo credit: Cairo 360

Which of the above have you tried?

Memphis – the ancient city of Egypt

After a long time on my travel list, Egypt made it to the top of my list this December. Especially when Oman Air had a special flight sale which coincided with Tour Radar’s big sale. Thus it was that I found myself on a flight to Cairo earlier this month.

Since I had a full day free on the first day before the briefing meeting by Timeless Tours, the tour operator, I decided to hire a cab and visit some sites that were not on the tour itinerary. I called Nour Gaber, the female taxi driver recommended on Lonely Planet, and it was great that she was free to take me around that day.

We visited Memphis, now a small open air museum with some relics from the ancient city, and its necropolis, Saqqara, the site of the Step Pyramid, considered the earliest large scale cut stone construction. Built around 2700 BC for the Pharoah Djoser by his vizier Imhotep, the Step Pyramid is considered the prototype for subsequent pyramids including the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Another interesting site within Saqqara was the Serapeum, a burial place for Apis bulls, believed to be incarnations of the ancient deity Ptah.

Nour wanted to show me a carpet weaving school in Saqqara since I had bought a little hand woven wall hanging at a shop outside of the Memphis museum. I was shown how the weavers tie the basic knots in  carpet weaving and the instructor challenged me to try it and that he would offer me one month’s job at the carpet school if I did it correctly.

IMG_2325The visit to Dahshur, another necropolis of Memphis, and seeing the results of the pyramid building experiments of ancient Egyptians was fascinating. The first was the Bent Pyramid, build by King Sneferu in 2600 BC. It was a failure as the pyramid began collapsing half way. While it was abandoned, Sneferu did not give up and his next attempt at pyramid building was a success resulting in the Red Pyramid.

Visitors were allowed inside the Red Pyramid and while I made it to the entrance of the tomb, after a few steps down the steep incline, I decided not to go further as it was too steep and difficult for me. However, I understood that this was the more accessible of the pyramids to try exploring than the ones within the Pyramid complex in Giza.

Nour suggested a restaurant for our combined lunch/ dinner as we had been busy the whole day visiting the sites. I am glad that I decided to take her up on her recommendation. It turned out to be a restaurant popular with locals and having massive queues waiting to be seated. As she knew the staff there, she managed to get us a table without the wait. And I was treated to a smorgasbord of delicious Egyptian cuisine.


The next day, which was the first day of the group tour, our group was taken to the Great Pyramid of Giza, which was built for Khufu, Sneferu’s son, in 2500 BC.

Found within the tomb of Sneferu was the Solar boat, that had been buried with the Pharoah so that he would have a mode of transportation in his after life. The boat is now in a museum just behind the Great Pyramid of Giza.

The Pyramid complex in Giza had 9 pyramids of varying sizes. The second largest pyramid in the complex is the pyramid of Khafre, son of Khufu.


The Great Sphinx of Giza was also built by Khafre in 2500 BC.


Seeing the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Sphinx in person was one of the key highlights of this trip.